Whole of Paddock Rehabilitation Voted ‘Best Thing Ever’

Basically, there is this really exciting method of paddock rehabilitation that is called Whole of Paddock Rehabilitation (WOPR, pronounced ‘wop-er’) and is run by Greening Australia, a very awesome environmental NGO that works with farmers to make their land healthier, more productive, and have better biodiversity.

The Problem

The agricultural area of south-east Australia is highly productive but also really very degraded. Farmers face problems such as salinity, erosion, bad soil health, and having their stock exposed to the elements. This makes their land less productive than it could be, means that stock loose weight due to stress, and means that they lose land to problems like salinity or erosion.

unhappy sheep
These sheep are pretty unhappy in their treeless paddock. Photo: Michael Marriott.

A Solution 

WOPR started in 2008 and since then has been pretty successful and shows great potential for kicking goals all over the place. Simply put, the way it works is that stock are taken out of a paddock of at least 10ha and trees are directed seeded in belts. Each belt has about four rows of trees and are 40-50 metres apart, giving the paddock a tree cover of 20-30%, which is ideal. Some trees and other plants such as grasses are put in a tubestock.

happy sheep
Happy sheep grazing in a WOPR paddock. Photo is copyright GA.

Among many other things, it has been shown to:

  • improve weight gain for stock;
  • increase habitat for native fauna, especially for birds;
  • be an additional form of food for stock;
  • increase carbon sequestration; and
  • improve soil health.

So how does WOPR happen?

A farmer applies to Greening Australia to be a part of the project. If they are accepted they need to put aside some land of at least 10ha paddocks, or a large paddock can be divided into smaller paddocks based on the quality of certain bits. Using existing paddocks save a lot of time and money on building fences!

WOPR
This is a really excellent diagram of WOPR that I did on Paint. The green rectangle is the >10ha paddock and the black lines are contour lines. You can see that the dark green belts of four bands of trees trees are planted along the contour lines, that’s because if you plant trees down a hill you just channel water and enhance or create problems with erosion and lowered landscape functionality.

 

The farmer takes out her stock and trees are direct seeded in belts across the paddock. She has to exclude her stock from that paddock for the next five years, so she is compensated at roughly $50/ha/year in two lump payments; one at the start of the five years and one at the end. After this time the trees should be big enough to be grazed by stock so she can let them back in, but Greening Australia recommends using a rotational grazing system for the five years thereafter to really get the best out of the pasture.

The projects are monitored throughout and as WOPR is a fairly new thing, the oldest sites are only six years old there is a lot of research to be done, which is where I come in …

WOPR and I

There is a strong tradition of ANU students doing research on WOPR, especially Honours projects. I intend to follow this tradition and spend between now and November doing a little bit of preparation for Honours next year, when I will be looking at something to do with tree density, probably creating models to project the next 200 years or so (it is only week one of semester, so a question hasn’t yet emerged from my excitement).

————————————————————————-

For more information on WOPR, check out the website here, where there is a nice little video and some lovely pictures. Tony Magee, the farmer from ‘Gunyah’ was nice enough to let us onto his farm to take a look at it when I did a sustainable agriculture course last semester, and it was really easy to see the benefits of it, especially when contrasted with his neighbours’ paddocks.

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Geographer of the Week: Disney’s Pocahontas

Disney’s Pocahontas is a fictionalised person.

pocahontas
So necklace. Such leaves. Many hair. Wow.

There was a real Pocahontas who met the English when they came to north America, who then moved to England and married a bloke named John Rolfe and who died at 22, never to see her homeland again. It’s a slightly sad story, full of lost promise.

The version most of us know is the highly fictionalised account in Disney’s 1995 film “Pocahontas”. For it’s depiction of Native Americans, Pocahontas herself and the actual facts of her life, and the historical context it has been called disrespectful, dehumanising and just plain inaccurate in the decades since it’s release, and these things are obvious upon a critical viewing. (Also, there is no way she’d have the full set of internal organs/ribs with a waist that tiny.)

pocahontas1
It’s my favourite hat. – Pocahontas.

However, we can all agree (surely) that there is one outstanding part of the film: Colors (sic) of the Wind is a beautiful song with a great clip/story and it is just lovely.

For her understanding of environmental science and how society should have a healthy relationship with it’s environment, Disney’s Pocahontas gets Geographer of the Week.

Check out the  song here and then let’s go through the song as geographers (song, lyrics & etc. are all copyright Disney).

You think I’m an ignorant savage
And you’ve been so many places
I guess it must be so
But still I cannot see
If the savage one is me
How can there be so much that you don’t know?
You don’t know …

In this first verse she is reminding us that even if you’re “civilised” you might have a rubbish relationship with the natural environment. Her use of the word “savage” reminds us that indigenous peoples all over the world are still treated with racism, disrespect, and are seen as subhuman. This is an enormous problem here in Australia; we treat First Australians so, so awfully then wonder why the land has gone to shit under 200 years of white mismanagement.

You think you own whatever land you land on
The Earth is just a dead thing you can claim
But I know every rock and tree and creature
Has a life, has a spirit, has a name

You think the only people who are people
Are the people who look and think like you
But if you walk the footsteps of a stranger
You’ll learn things you never knew you never knew

When the British landed in Botany Bay in 1770 they decided that the land was ‘terra nullius‘; a land belonging to no-one despite that fact that First Australians were living there very happily, and had been for up to 60 000 years. Pocahontas reminds us that we should respect every part of the environment  and that we need to listen to the knowledge of those connected to the land if we’re going to manage it properly, rather than being bigoted fools.

Have you ever heard the wolf cry to the blue corn moon
Or asked the grinning bobcat why he grinned?
Can you sing with all the voices of the mountains?
Can you paint with all the colors of the wind?
Can you paint with all the colors of the wind?

Come run the hidden pine trails of the forest
Come taste the sunsweet berries of the Earth
Come roll in all the riches all around you
And for once, never wonder what they’re worth

Here she sings about experiencing and enjoying the natural world, thinking about it and connecting with it, without trying to make it a commodity.

The rainstorm and the river are my brothers
The heron and the otter are my friends
And we are all connected to each other
In a circle, in a hoop that never ends

It’s the CIIIIRCLE OF LIFE!

How high will the sycamore grow?
If you cut it down, then you’ll never know
And you’ll never hear the wolf cry to the blue corn moon

For whether we are white or copper skinned
We need to sing with all the voices of the mountains
We need to paint with all the colors of the wind

You can own the Earth and still
All you’ll own is earth until
You can paint with all the colors of the wind

She’s so, so right.

coloursofthewind
You need to paint with all the colours of the wind.

Repower Port Augusta

This is a rough transcript of a speech I gave at an Earth Hour event this year after we watched 2 Degrees, a film wich I can highly reccomend. It talks about the collosal fail that was the Copenhagen CoP in 2009 and the wonderful story of the Repower Port Augusta campaign, which I was lightly involved in in 2012.

I want to start by acknowldging the traditional owners of this land, the Gumbaynggirr people, and their elders past and present. I want to apologise to the elders of the past, of all countries across Australia, because they were stewards for tens of thousands of years and looked after the country, and in the 200 years of whitefellas being here we now have all kinds of environmental problems.

We’re here tonight to work on fixing one of those problems; climate change.

A warning: this is a slightly interactive talk.

In 2012 I was part of a group that walked the 328km from Port Augusta to Adelaide. It was really fun; I met some lovely people, travelled through beautiful countryside, and became an expert in taping up blisters. For two weeks we walked through heat, dust, rain and cyclonic winds and when we finally marched into Adelaide and were met by a huge, supportive crowd it was one of the most exciting and powerful things I have ever done.

pt_augusta_rally
We walked into Adelaide and about 2000 people joined us to march through the streets to the SA Parliament. It was wonderful; we were all singing and dancing and chanting and the police cleared the streets for us and that night we were all over the news right around Australia. #kickinggoalsallovertheplace

(We were all over TV the day we arrived in Adelaide. Ellen Sandell was AYCC Director at the time, check out her talking to the ABC here.)

Repowering Port Augusta will start a new way of thinking in Australia. This project will prove that renewable are not only viable, but that they are better than fossil fuels. It will show that we can move away from the fossil fuels that cause climate change without compromising our standard of living or the environment. This campaign, and in particular the Walk, marks a turning point in Australia’s interaction with climate change – when a community stood up and took action instead of waiting for action from a government.

community vote
The Repower Port Augusta team lead by Daniel Spencer who was the AYCC SA co-coordinator at the time (pictured) and the late Joy Baluch, who was Mayor of Port Augusta for decades, put in hundreds of hours of work to put together a community vote which showed overwhelming support for solar energy over fossil fuels.

I went because I wanted to be a part of it, to be able to say, I was there; much like I am tonight. I loved the idea of showing how much I cared in the real world, not just through a petition or something, but through tangible action. And I can tell you, with the number of blisters I got it was very, very tangible.

Volunteers of the Australian Youth Climate Coalition were invited to go on the walk and we helped to escalate the campaign and create national awareness of it, which we did wonderfully. This was only possible because of hundreds of hours of work put in by the PA team and their volunteers.

See, as a Walker, I was just one cog in the Repower Port Augusta machine. Leading up to the Walk and in the years since, the Port Augusta team worked hard with the local community to grow support for concentrated solar thermal for their town. Port Augusta hasn’t been repowered yet, but the community is so behind it that it will be.

Here’s the first interactive bit: If I said Vincent Lingairi and Paul Kelly, you would say … ?

(If you don’t know the song, have a listen here. It is a classic from one of Australia’s best contemporary musicians about a very important episode in our history.)

We know that from little things, big things grow and because of their determination and commitment, this little group of South Australians as the potential to grow into Australia’s first big renewable energy project.

cst
A concentrated solar thermal plant in Spain. The mirrors shine light onto the top of the tower where molten salt is heated up and put in tanks. The salt is used to heat water to spin the turbines to create electricity and can provide baseload power.

The lessons from Port Augusta are important now, as the science gets grimmer, time slips away from us and governments around the world – and in Australia – refuse to take it seriously. It’s easy to lose motivation.

But in 2012 a hundred of us walked 328km for solar, this week UniSuper, Australia’s 7th largest super, announced it would start transitioning away from fossil fuels, and tonight we are all here to continue strong climate action in Coffs Harbour.

unisuper
There is still a long way to go on UniSuper, but this is a good start.

Even if you’re just six people with five laptops and one idea, with enough time and effort you can change climate change. We can save the Great Barrier Reef, we can transition Australia to renewable energy, we can divest from fossil fuels, change hearts and minds, and lead our governments.

Port Augsta teaches us that we have the skills, technology and will to beat climate change, we just have to get our local community organised and put in a lot of work.

Second interactive part: I want you to all hold out your hand and imagine that there’s a little puzzle piece on it. Now all we have to do it fit them together to grow something big.

earth hour
While I was giving my speech in NSW, Canberra was looking mighty fine for Earth Hour, fitting 3600 little candles together for one big message: we have to fight climate change to save the Great Barrier Reef.

Here Be Dragons

Imagine living in a garden full of dragons. Imagine have breakfast while chatting to one, or walking down the main street and seeing one casually draping itself over a sign in front of the police station.

IMAG0026
This little one was draped over a sign outside the police station in the main street.

I’m speaking of course of the Eastern Water Dragon (Physignathus lesueurii).

Growing up to a metre in length they are the largest dragons in Australia but are sometimes mixed up with their cousins, the Gippsland Water Dragon. You can tell them apart if you look at their faces: the Gippsland ones don’t have a black stripe going from their nose to their ear.

Water dragons are, as their name suggests, very well adapted to water. Their tails constitute 2/3 of their body length and are used for swimming while their nostrils are on the top of their heads making it possible to breathe while their heads are submerged, a trait they share with crocodiles. Like other lizards such as lace monitors and goannas they can use their strong claws to climb quickly and easily.

IMAG0054
This little girl is taking a dip in one of the ponds out front.

They are good indicators of biodiversity as they mainly prey on insects and frogs as juveniles, meaning that if there is a healthy population of dragons there is also a healthy population of insects and frogs. When they’re older they become omnivores. It’s always nice to see predators like dragons and kookaburras in the garden as it means that the garden ecosystem is diverse and healthy enough to support them.

IMAG0050
Aw, yiss.

It is possible to identify males and females as males have crimson, vermilion or orange chests to attract mates. After mating a female will lay a clutch of eggs in soft soil or sand by the water and when the baby dragons hatch they are completely self sufficient. However, studies have shown that the temperature of the eggs during incubation can determine the sex of the dragons. This is worrying as males are only produced in middling temperatures, with females produced in cooler and warmer temperatures, so over time the species may becomes less viable as there are fewer males produced due to the temperature of the ground being affected by increasing temperatures.

Water dragon eggs. Photo: Nadav Pezaro
Water dragon eggs. Photo: Nadav Pezaro
IMAG0049
The red on the chest identifies this one as male. He’s just chilling on the front deck.

Although it’s legal to keep water dragons as pets in NSW you need a license for it and it is ideal that you only purchase reptiles from other license holders to try and source reptiles that are healthy and well looked after. It is illegal in Australia to keep animals that have been collected from the wild. Keeping these beautiful lizards as pets seems strange to me, why not just make your garden suitable for them?

Why would you do this? Poor little things must be out of their minds with boredom and they have basically no space. They're not like dogs; they don't like you, you don't have a relationship with them. You just keep them in a glass box. Photo: Ryan Kennedy.
Why would you do this? Poor little things must be out of their minds with boredom and they have basically no space. They’re not like dogs; they don’t like you, you don’t have a relationship with them. You’re just keep them in a glass box. Photo: Ryan Kennedy.

Do that and they’ll come of their own accord. Build a pond or a small waterway, have lots of native shrubs to hid in. Make sure that your garden has plenty of flowers to attract insects and have a pile of old logs and tiles for reptiles to hide in and sunbake on. Also, keep your cat indoors. Or just don’t have a cat. (We were talking about this last night at dinner and I said “At least with dogs you can fence them in; there isn’t much you can do with cats.” Without missing a beat Dad said “You can do two things with cats: drown them or shoot them.”) Dragons aren’t meant to be kept in small glass boxes; they’re wild animals, not puppies to be played with.

Cats are just awful. Photo: someone in the US.
Cats are just awful. Photo: someone in the US.
Build a nice pond then sit back and enjoy your urban biodiversity. Photo: Dorling Kindersley Limited.
Build a nice pond then sit back and enjoy your urban biodiversity. Photo: Dorling Kindersley Limited.
tiles
These tiles are onduline, a cladding and roofing material that is soaked in bitumen. Stack them with rocks between them and reptiles will love the heat and safety. Photo: NZ Department of Conservation.
A tumble of sticks, plants and old pots is the perfect hangout for small reptiles. Photo: My Green Australia.
A tumble of sticks, plants and old pots is a good hangout for small reptiles. Photo: My Green Australia.

If you have lizards in your yard resist the urge to feed them – it’s not healthy for them and teaches them to rely on you. Instead, just sit quietly and watch them. We should encourage and appreciate urban biodiversity, not seek to control it or interfere with it.

If you're going to keep reptiles at least do it properly. This raptor is a cheap as chips $2500 from some silly homewares place.
If you’re going to keep reptiles at least do it properly. This fibreglass raptor is a cheap as chips at $2500 from some silly homewares place.

Here are some links for those interested in all things dragon:

A fact sheet from the Australian Museum on Water Dragons

http://australianmuseum.net.au/Water-Dragon

A guide to creating a reptile friendy backyard:

Lizards

Making your backyard wildlife friendly:

Creating a wildlife-friendly backyard

IMAG0047
Hello! I’m a dragon!

 

Book Review: On Guerrilla Gardening

For interesting and inspiring read, full of humorous anecdotes and useful information, I recommend Richard Reynolds’ On Guerrilla Gardening.

gardening
This is the edition I have. I initially picked it up because of it’s colorful hardcover; I love hardcovers! A positive case of judging a book by its cover?

the book

For a while I couldn’t shake the slightly weird feeling of reading a manual on an activity as whimisical and adventurous as guerrilla gardening, but the book is a useful guide. It has two parts, The Movement and The Manual which neatly divide up the high minded idealism and cold blooded pragmatism, which Reynolds is at pains to stress throughout:

You can dream of a grand transformation, but don’t rush to create it. … In their hearts most guerrilla gardeners are idealists, but we need the measured pulse of a pragmatist too if our gardens are to flourish. (pgs 159-160)

There are lots of quotes from Mao that need only a bit of tweaking to make them appropriate, and it’s strange to think what could be achieved if people used their passion and talents and time and resources to create beautiful things rather than to destroy and dominate.

It’s very inspiring and after finishing it I wanted to go out into the world, seeds in hand, and plant sunflowers absolutely everywhere.

sunflowers
The author himself and some sunflowers. Photo from theguardian.uk

He’s a good, funny writer and there are lots of amusing and relevant anecdotes, but I feel as if the book is slightly too long. It’s a bit like the third Lord of the Rings film; it’s beautiful and entertaining and a great, well told story but you can’t help checking your watch as yet another ‘ending’ plays out. Just chuck the ring in the volcano and be done with it already!

Another problem I have with the book is that the pages are glossy. This makes them hard to read under direct light, such as from a lamp and means that they lack that nice papery feel and smell. It also means that they’ve been treated with bucketloads of chemicals, which is kind of ironic.I dunno, maybe I just got a fail copy.

Lastly, all of the photos in the book are of beautiful, well tended gardens. I wanted some before and after photos to really get inspired, or some photos of a wilting plant to reassure me that not every plant is amazing, or some schematics of possible garden layouts because I freaking love diagrams.

plan
Isn’t that just the most satisfying thing? Image from seedandbean.com

the book and geography

He talks about the kind of problems guerrilla gardening battle – for example neglected land, vacant land, land scarcity – and about the things that it creates: beauty; community; food; shade.

Neglected, rubbish strewn, weedy or just plain ugly land (especially in cities) is such a shame.

Land is bloody scarce (especially in cities) and this utter waste is unfriendly to look at and makes people sad as they see their community and urban environment in disrepair. I don’t know about you, but things such as planter boxes that are filled with cigarette butts or bare dirt alongside foot paths make me sad.

doing it wrong
Planter boxes: you’re doing it wrong. Clearly, this society has failed to correctly utilise this resource and therefore geography is broken and people are sad.

This all displays a bad relationship between society and it’s immediate space; the built environment. It’s the kind of thing that makes we geographers sad, especially when people are crying out for healthy food and a place to build communities, as experienced by Ron Finley.

This book offers a lovely, fun idea to combat these problems and create better relationships, both between society and the urban environment* and between groups and individuals within society. (Any statisticians out there will be hearing ‘ANOVA’ at this stage.)

On Guerrilla Gardening offers many exciting and uplifting stories about little impulsive actions becoming community gardens, award winning spaces and beautiful environs.

ccg
The Clinton Community Gardens in New York tend to come up a fair bit. Photo: Anne Bremer

So read the book! It’s great.

metadata

Title: On Guerrilla Gardening: A Handbook For Gardening Without Boundaries

Author: Richard Reynolds

Date Published: 2008

Publisher: Bloomsbury

Rating: I give it seven out of ten sunflowers.

*Oh man, I love that phrase. It’s totally the nexus of all the interesting things.

Poverty, Agroecology and Gobalised Food

If current population trends increase, global production of food will have to increase by 70-100% by 2050.

With current food production practice, meeting this demand is highly unlikely and yet the UN Millennium Development Goals (UN MDG) seek end poverty and extreme hunger. The  humanitarian crisis in the Horn of Africa (in July 2011 the UN declared a state of famine in Somalia, the first in the 21st century) is testament to three things:

  • Poverty reduction is currently one of the most pressing global issues;
  • Food production systems need to be overhauled in order to promote equal distribution of food; and
  • Food sovereignty should be strongly encouraged in all countries.
poverty
The first UN MDG is to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. It’s currently 2014.

A possible way to address the above points is encouraging the growth of agroecology.

If there are any doubts regarding the need for countries around the world to independently source their food, one story from the 2007-2009 global recession will remedy this.

In late 2007 food prices rose dramatically around the world and the price of staple foods such as maize and rice almost doubled, causing food riots in more than 20 countries. This wasn’t because of drought or poor crop yields – there was plenty of food for sale – but because food has become a product on the global market and so is subject to fluctuations in the world economy.

prices
In 2007 global food prices rose dramatically…
oil and food
… but not because of a lack of food.

So although there was enough food available few could afford it due to the collapse of the worldmarkets. The food sovereignty offered by agroecology would go a long way buffer this by the strengthening of local markets; food prices in Africa and Asia would no longer be intrinsically linked to the prosperity of banks in America.

Agroecology is a more sustainable agricultural system than conventional ones as positively it address three big drivers of change: climate change; biodiversity; and food security. The system is also more resilient to change, needs less human input, has more stable net productivity, and are better equipped to take full advantage of the ecological services in place.

no text
The triple bottom line is the point of agroecology. I really could just picture this one photo and do away with all the hundreds of words of explanatory text.

The best examples of working agroecology systems can be found in Latin America and the practices there can be used as examples of how to implement this system.

Movimiento Campesino a Campesino (MCAC)(Farmer to Farmer Movement) is a movement that has established itself in Central America over the last three decades. It promotes farmers learning from other farmers, sharing information between them in order to find the best possible ways to produce food. This has been found to be the most effective way of communicating sustainable practice quickly and on a large scale, and it offers good results small landholders are more likely to listen to and connect with their peers.

work
Flowcharts are nice. Information flows in conventional vs campesino systems.

For example, when soil conservation practices were introduced into Honduras through MCAC yields for hillside farms rose from 400kg per hectare to 1,200 – 1,600kg per hectare due to healthier soils. This easily accessible network of information is a central part of agroecology as currently one of the biggest barriers to food production in developing countries is a lack of available knowledge/technology.

As an agricultural system, agroecology should be broadly implemented on a global scale to stabilise food security, use natural resources sustainably, protect biodiversity, and alleviate poverty through the formation of stable markets.

To do this, governments must take responsibility in engaging with farmers, research facilities, NGOs and industry to ensure that the system works in the most efficient way possible. Several recommendations have been made on the subject;

  • Governments must put in place mechanisms to empower small farmers (such as partnerships and financial aid). This also ties in with article 1(B)(6) of the International Food Security Agenda (1993).
  • Current subsidies on conventional agriculture must be dismantled so agroecology becomes more economically rational on an industrial scale than conventional systems
  • Equitable markets should be developed, emphasising fair trade to create both income for farmers and sustainable food supplies for their regions.
fair trade
Of course, it’s not all up to governments. As a consumer, you can chose what you buy and therefore what kind of industry and philosophy you are supporting.

Sustainable agriculture should be developed with emphasis on local knowledge and involving farmers directly in formulating research agendas and technological innovation. Solutions must be site-specific be focused on information systems rather than capital.

For this, systems thinking must be used in order to ‘work smarter, not harder’ using practices like agroforestry and polycropping in order to boost yield with minimum input. Most recommendations focus on policy change  which could be difficult to implement in capital focused countries like Australia. This is because of three things;

  • Agroecology has often be branded as anti-capitalist by supporters of an entirely unregulated market
  • Implementation would require an overhaul of current food production systems in Australia
  • Demand for food that cannot be produced locally is high; would require a large social shift in ways of thinking.

Agroecology should be encouraged and supported in developing/more socialist countries with current knowledge and understanding while more research is needed to develop a viable way for industrialised/neo-liberal countries to do the same.

Book Review: The Declaration of Interdependence

This tiny little ink-green and pastel-yellow book is one of the best things I have ever read in my life.

Image
Such book. Excite.

Written by Tara Cullis and David Suzuki, and with help from Raffi Cavoukian, Wade Davis and Guujaaw, it is yet another wonderful publication from the David Suzuki Foundation.

the book

Basically, in the lead up to the first Rio Earth Summit in 1992 Cullis and Suzuki et al. wrote the beautiful, poetic Declaration that espouses the need for creating “a new politics of hope” of interdependence between humans and our natural home, i.e. Earth and all her systems, including other species.

The Deceleration is set out in three parts that your high school English teacher would be proud of: it has a clear beginning which sets the context (This We Know), the middle which presents a problem (This We Believe), and an end which sets out a solution (This We Resolve). All in all, it’s less than three pages long but the complexity, subtlety and emotion set therein seems to extend not only to the time of “the firstborn cell” from which we are descended, but also reaches toward “all those who walk after us”.

The book also contains a short essay by Suzuki explaining the history and meaning of the Deceleration and another by Cullis which describes the David Suzuki Foundation and it’s inspiring history. It contains beautiful ink illustrations by Michael Nicoll Yahgulanaas which successfully represent the flowing yet solid tone of the text. It’s the kind of writing that catches in your throat, speaks to something in you that you’d forgotten, and Yahgulanaas’ Haida inspired drawings express this perfectly.

Image
“We are the breath of the forests of the land, and the plants of the sea.” One of the book’s illustrations.

the book and geography

So how does this wonderful little book relate to geography?

Well, in every way possible really. It discusses pretty much all of the themes most relevant to the study of geography. Remember that we take geography to be the study of how society (human geography) relates to the Earth system (natural geography). A traditional, cartographic understanding of geography is the ultimate expression of this as it literally is the study of how society sees the Earth’s landscape; the interface of the society/environment nexus.

The book’s central thesis is that we need to stop thinking of the environment as ‘the environment’; something that exists externally to us, that’s outside or in a National Park or is somehow apart from society. We need to stop thinking that we need to control, subdue, contain, dominate, economise, or stand apart from it. We need to stop thinking that we can extract and extract and extract in order to consume consume consume with no heed to the toxic and horrendous waste and destruction that that creates.

Image
We need to stop thinking that we can extract and extract and extract. A coalmine in the Latrobe Valley, Victoria in 2009. For a sense of scale, see the 4WD in the bottom left. Picture: Paul Crock.

Here’s an excerpt from Suzuki’s essay:

“There is no separation; there is no environment ‘out there’ that we have to regulate our interaction with. Air is in us and circulates throughout our bodies at all times, we are made up of more than 60 per cent water by weight, we are built of the molecules of food we consume – most of which has come from the earth – and every bit of the energy that we need to grow, move, and reproduce is the fire of the sun captured by plants through photosynthesis. We are the earth, and so whatever we do to it, we do directly to ourselves.”

Basically, it’s calling for a re-assessment of how we as a society relate to the Earth system and all her squirrels and sea cucumbers and trees and ice bergs and creeks and so on. That’s geography, dude.

As a student of geography at the Fenner School of Environment and Society reading this book I felt as if my entire university education had been summarised in three pages.

tldr: Very insight, such wonderful. Wow.

metadata*

Name: The Declaration of Interdependence: A Pledge to Planet Earth

Authors: Tara Cullis, David Suzuki, Raffi Cavoukian, Wade Davis and Guujaaw

Illustrations: Michael Nicoll Yahgulanaas

Date: (first ed.) 2010

Publishers: Greystone Books and the David Suzuki Foundation

Website: http://www.davidsuzuki.org/about/declaration/

Rating: I give it ten out of ten Earth systems

*I just love metadata! Even saying it is fun. Metadata. Meta. Data. Meh-tah. Dah-tah. Aw, yiss.